O father of the gods, your command, the very foundations of heaven and earth, what god could spurn it? According to the code, there were three social classes in Babylonia: an upper class of nobles government officials, priests, and warriors , the class of freemen merchants, artisans, professionals, and wealthy farmers , and a lower class of slaves. The Sumerians used writing primarily as a form of record keeping. He was also viewed as the source of all authority including the earthly power of rulers and fathers alike. To counter their insecurity, the Mesopotamians not only developed the arts of divination in order to understand the wishes of their gods, but also relieved some anxiety by establishing codes that regulated their relationships with one another. Fathers ruled their children as well as their wives. Private individuals relied on cheaper divinatory techniques.
Classical Asia: Classical Asia to c C.E.: Islam, India, China, and Japan - The Flow of History
We see men herding horses and driving horse-drawn chariots. Jericho grew into a fortified town complete with ditches, stone walls, and towers and contained perhaps residents. Each city-state was sacred since it was carefully guarded by and linked to a specific god or goddess. The temple complex was the true center of the community. Crimes such as striking one's older brother and kicking one's mother were punished by condemnation to slavery.
Ancient Western Asia and the Civilization of Mesopotamia
This change may have occurred since life in a fixed community was less demanding. Settlements began to encourage the growth of plants such as barley and lentils and the domestication of pigs, sheep and goats. This development made it possible to create larger communities and also helped to spread the practice of agriculture to a wider area. The Code of Hammurabi also specified the precise wages of laborers and artisans. If a father committed incestuous relations with his daughter, he would be banished.
Located near the center of each city-state was a temple. Royal slaves were used to construct buildings and fortifications. Agricultural society brought changes in the organization of religious practices as well. Women were guaranteed some rights, however. For instance, it was held that each city-state was the estate of a particular god: Nannar moon was said to have watched over the city-state of Ur; Uruk had An sky , Sippar had Utu sun and Enki earth could be found at Eridu. Tenant farming was the basis of Mesopotamian agriculture.